Farming in the mountainous regions of the republic
A. Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
In connection with the transition to the new republic, a private land use and division of the arable crop rotations with the development of arrays into small plots of land as a fraction, the production of marketable agricultural products to such a small area of land plots are often unprofitable, especially in the dry lands. A significant number of rural residents moved to subsistence farming, and live below the poverty line.
Economically and scientifically based crop rotations are not applied. All this has led to a sharp decline in soil fertility. Degradation of arable land have reached a critical dangerous levels. Because of the progressive process of waterlogging, salinity, osolontsevatosti, water and wind erosion of soils reduced the area of arable land. Many lands are in poor condition due to lack of ameliorative resources to improve them, as well as melkokonturnosti as the technology of reclamation measures required for such works in large arrays.
Therefore, 13 mountain districts of the republic declared the decision of Government of the Kyrghyz Republic of unfavorable climatic conditions. All these areas require special attention from the state.
The area of arable highlands of 272.9 thousand hectares, of which 52% is occupied by crops and 38% – fodder. Due to the short growing period, grain yields are low: in 2000 it was 20-25ts per hectare. In mountainous areas, availability of food grain self-production is extremely low. In addition, the low sales price of grain in the actual high cost makes it impossible to conduct a cost-effective management. Because of this, many residents live below the poverty line, their life expectancy is low, children are not getting adequate nutrition required for normal growth and development.
In Naryn semhozy give only 26% of the seeds of grain, seeds ostalnye74%, the peasants themselves. And they cook the seeds of poor quality, making every hectare the farmer loses up to 10C grain. Semhozov only 13.
Part of the farms in the highlands mainly withstands the required proportion of sown perennial grasses, but at the cost of their use in 5-10 years when the harvest of food from them are in extremely limited quantities, basically just hay.
The situation is extremely unfavorable phytosanitary fields which are overgrown with weeds, there are numerous pests and plant diseases. It began the depletion of soil from the existing monoculture crops and lack of fertilizer.
Very difficult question remains clean harvest of agricultural products. Cleaning equipment is not enough, especially chronic stressful it takes in mountain areas. As a result of the harvest is lost in the bud, and even remains unharvested.
In the mountainous regions of the country has 7600 hectares of planting fruit-bearing orchards, representing 18% of the total area of gardens in the country. With an average yield of fruit in the republic 23.9 centners per 1 hectare, the yield was 31.7 centners here. Hence, this area is very conducive to gardening, and has great prospects.
Currently Kyrgyzskoy Republic is the formation of a land market, auctions are held for sale of rights to use land.
On 01/01/2000, the republic, operating 67,217 business entities, including private – 66 555, the collective – 605, including AO – 45, OKH – 279 agricultural cooperatives – 281 state farms – 57.
However, the existing material-technical base is in poor condition, the technique is idle due to lack of spare parts, lubricants, etc.
The problems faced by rural producers mountain next.
Problem 1. Average yields of crops in irrigated areas is minimal low.
Problem 2. Low agriculture agricultural production on the newly created small farming plots.
Problem 3. The system of crop rotation is not applied.
Problem 4. Erosion, degradation of arable land and soil loss (30-70%).
Problem 5. Outdated technology is plowing land on the slopes (tailings and reservoir turnovers) lead to soil erosion – reduce the total yield of 40%.
Problem 6. Most of the agricultural machinery has developed its own resources, out of order, a new – almost sold.
Problem 7. The high cost and shortage of fuel and lubricants.
Problem 8. The distribution network is destroyed by land reclamation and ineffective.
Problem 9. Production of farmers do not sell in local markets, system sales in other regions has not been created.
Problem 10. Low prices for agricultural products and high prices for inputs and services.
Problem 11. Lack of access to credit. Problem 12. An acute shortage of quality seeds, fertilizers, and herbicides. Problem 13. Lack of arable land and water resources.
Ways of solving problems:
– Should grow crops with short growing seasons,
– To introduce crop rotations,
– To expand the cultivation of perennial grasses,
– Seed should be established,
– Establish sainfoin seed production,
– Update the perennial grasses, and at the same time and restore soil fertility and to obtain additional forage,
– Free from all suppliers of fertilizers of high customs duties to these products become available for a wide range of rural producers mountain
– Provide technical assistance in the form of trade credit as combine harvesters and tractors, planters,
– To create in each district Leasing Center for Technical and maintenance of rural producers,
– To open a chain of shops trading in spare parts for agricultural machinery and tools chemicals,
– Expand the horticulture,
– Create plodopitomnicheskie economy in mountainous areas.
Two. Livestock. Problem.
Currently, about 30% of total personal holdings of the rural population do not have cattle. Cattle do not contain up to 40% of farms, sheep and 42%, horses, and 70%, and contain only pigs – up 6% goats – up to 20%. Of the total number of livestock and poultry, the mountain area accounts for between 10.3% to 38.6% of all animals in recent years because of soaring energy prices, feed, transport services, a number of the livestock industries is becoming unprofitable. For example, the number of pigs and poultry has declined sharply compared with 1991. The main reason for reducing the number of animals and reduce their productivity – inadequate feeding. In mountainous areas there is no network of shops, factories and processing plants of livestock products.
Ways of solving the problem:
– The creation of new modern mini-workshops and mini-mills;
– Creation of a sustainable food supply;
– To increase the acreage of forage crops (due to the crops of alfalfa, sainfoin and other high-protein crops and succulent food – roots);
– Provide a green mountain animal feed, due to the improvement and use of pastures;
– Use of non-traditional crops of high-protein forage crops such as soybeans, peas, beans, etc.;
– To improve infrastructure and social conditions of livestock in the mountains;
– To create in each AO and settlements veterinary service centers;
– Open the stores and warehouses, implementing veterinary drugs, equipment and materials for the items of artificial insemination of farm animals;
– Establish a system of financial support to veterinary services, biofactories, biological laboratories, departments of the State Veterinary Department;
– To preserve the gene pool of the breed of sheep;
– To organize the Center for Marketing and Sales of products of sheep and wool testing laboratories;
– To create in the mountainous regions of the Association of Farmers, pastoralists to deal with economic, financial and legal issues, as well as logistics.
Three. Pastures. Problems
The country has about 9.0 million hectares of pasture, of which 5.6 million hectares are located in distant mountain areas, and only 2.1 million hectares are located between Priselski and driving away zones. According to preliminary calculations, due to improvement of grassland plants can further get 3-4 million tons of feed (in feed units) are the cheapest feed for livestock. Due to the lack of advanced technology in the field of rangeland, cattle country now consumes only 0.5 million tons of feed units., Ie 86% of pasture area almost does not give any products.
Field forage production declined from 2.5 million tons to 1.0 million tons of feed units. Delivery of grain for feed production from other CIS states practically ceased. Peasant and Farmers stopped using rich distant pastures because of the high costs of transhumance. On the mountain nomad camps cultural centers for livestock eliminated. Require road repair highways, destroyed some major mountain crossing of the river. In many areas are out of order parking zhivotnovodskie station (OLS). Construction of new facilities is suspended. Suspended repair of existing pasture plants. Based on the foregoing, the need to radically change the technology of keeping animals. The transition to new technologies will eventually enable maximum use of pasture and get a cheap, environmentally friendly animal production.
Ways of solving problems:
– Need to strengthen the existing 5 OLS involved harvesting forage insurance stocks on distant pastures;
– A five OLS, which can provide insurance reserves feed the cattle farmers in distant pastures;
– Stop weeds and pasture degradation.
Sheep. Problem. At present, farmers breed sheep breeders in two directions – wool and meat, which produced fine-wool, semi, polugrubye and coarse hair types. The first two types of wool are designed to provide raw material of light industry of the republic, for the second-carpet. The second line of production is used mainly for meat production. In all regions of the country is a massive cover-wooled sheep, rams and semi-local coarse-wooled sheep and Hissar breeds.
Crosses of different genotypes are highly adapted to the content in the high mountains, as well as for hot valley areas and are characterized by extraordinary stamina, strength, ability to endure great deprivation for feeding and maintenance. But in any case they do not lose their high, in economic terms, qualities precocity, myasnosti and greasiness. These features are hybrids of different genotypes distinguish them from other breeds, making them extremely valuable in economic terms.
Despite the fact that the breeding of sheep in almost all regions of the country is unprofitable, gissarizirovannye sheep in a year-round maintenance on pastures profitable.
Cattle. Increasing the productivity of cattle provided by the concentration of cattle farmers in the breeding and reproduction of dairy cattle by crossing local breeds with brown Swiss breed, as well as highly productive breeds of the United States, Switzerland and Israel.
Yak. Problem. In the highland areas of the main objective of livestock development is the revival and further development of yak and the output of its products to foreign markets. In recent years, due to the weakening of attention to the yak, and haphazard breeding this species was grinding and reduce the herd of yaks. The number of yak decreased significantly, from 79.2 thousand units available in 1978 at the beginning of 01.01 in 2000 there were only 16.9 thousand Yaqui have meat, dairy and wool productivity, as well as provide valuable skins with minimal costs for the products. At the same yaks in their biological characteristics, are well adapted to year-round maintenance on pastures. Yaki – this is the only farm animal, the content of which is possible in extreme conditions of mountain areas. These animals do not require the premises for its content, care, feeding, as year-round are grazing. Yak meat is a high-calorie, environmentally friendly product, its yield up to 60%. The development of yak in the Republic of Kyrgyzskoy creates a real opportunity to expand the range of products, not previously produced in the country. Processing of blood and serum, the endocrine glands will get the products in great demand in the global market. Herd of yaks in the future may bring up to 80.0 thousand.
- to establish joint ventures for the breeding of sport, breeding and producing horses with the subsequent sale on international markets,
- establish a breeding thoroughbred race horses, breeding and meat
horses for supply to international markets,
- establish the Association for the provision of services to tourists
- establish a system for providing travelers with food and koumiss
e) expand the network of racetracks and other entertainment and sports facilities.
Beekeeping. In recent years, the Republic of beekeeping has declined sharply. In particular honey production decreased 9.5 times. Beekeepers because of high prices can not acquire the necessary equipment. For the development of beekeeping is necessary to implement a specialization in the following areas: honey product, opylitelnom, razvedencheskom and health. The country is specialized in beekeeping only the direction of commodity honey, while other potential opportunities are not used, which reduces the efficiency of production. Beekeepers' associations need to develop business plans for the further development of beekeeping.
Problems of livestock:
Problem 1. A significant reduction in livestock.
Problem 2. The destruction of transhumance grazing.
Problem 3. Lags behind in its development, selection and breeding livestock.
Problem 4. None (not developed) an effective system of co-operation of farms to meet the challenges of restoring the livestock, the development of transhumance and the selection and breeding of livestock, as well as processing and marketing of products.
Problem 5. Destroyed, is outdated and does not return the material-technical base and infrastructure of livestock in mountainous regions of the country.
Renewal of livestock breeding areas in mountainous regions
An urgent task of increasing the productivity of farm animals is the modernization of selection and breeding work. To solve this problem it is necessary to resume the work of tribal government stations and points of artificial insemination, as well as to prepare technicians for the insemination. Make a purchase and delivery of sires and remontant young. To carry out the selection and breeding work in herds on the farms and factories.
Problems of industrial processing and agricultural raw materials in the mountains. Private farmers and cooperative associations of mountain areas are experiencing considerable difficulty marketing of agricultural products, mainly due to lack of processing industries in the field.
Therefore, the development of existing facilities and construction of mini-refineries in remote mountainous areas of the republic is a priority for the state. There should be processed in the remote regions of mountain products yak, goat fluff areas, gardening, wild fruits and berries, etc. The development of these industries will give people a cheap mountain dietary meat, milk, wool, feathers, skins, which, due to their environmental friendliness, in the future will be one of the lucrative exports.
Processing of yak products will be conducted in two directions:
- based on the existing meat processing plants and slaughterhouses located in mountainous areas;
- by the construction of mobile mini-workshops in the most remote mountain areas.
There should be industrial processing of mare's milk and receive a valuable therapeutic product, koumiss in the areas of Naryn oblast. Kumis be curative drink, the availability of which is seasonal, so the drying of mare's milk will resolve the issue, not only year-round supply of the population, but also the country and abroad.
II. Problems of increasing crop irrigation Biointensivnoe
At present, farmers have Kyrgyzskoy Republic acute shortage of logistical, financial resources, which does not allow for the successful management of agriculture and use up to two thirds of agricultural land resources.
Ways of solving problems: