The use of energy resources
Kyrgyzskaya Republic has a large fuel and energy resources, but recently their production and use remains low. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the loss of reliable markets for energy industry was not able to operate economically sustainable manner. Coal production declined by 88.1% and gas by 81.4% compared with 1990. The total amount of energy produced by Kyrgyzstan, decreased by 54%, so the country can no longer provide for their energy needs. As a result, approximately 50% of the fuel consumed in Kyrgyzstan, are now bought at high prices in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. Over the past five years, approximately U.S. $ 600 million was spent on the purchase of energy from other countries.
The contribution of electric energy in the fuel and energy balance to be used by consumers, rose by 27% (compared to 10% in 1990). This increase in consumption of electricity was due to the relatively good supply of electricity, compared with other sources, and relatively low prices for electricity, due to its hydroelectric power plants. Learn more about apartments in tel aviv!
Although there is a serious lack of power in the country, the problem of mining-oriented energy sector is squandering or underutilization of the potential energy of mountain resources.
One of the main causes of energy loss is the electricity supply system, which is not designed for sudden changes in the number of national energy consumption. This leads to an overload of energy throughout the distribution system, especially in winter, when demand for electricity increases. The loss is approximately 40-60 percent, depending on the distance between the power plant and the consumer, as well as on the state of the individual parts of the network.
Existing hydroelectric powerful need for maintenance and modernization. Since purchasing the possibility of the population are low, prices for the supply of electricity does not reflect the real costs of delivery.
The potential for decentralized small power station underutilized (small hydro, wind, solar, biogas plants, etc.) Mountains provide many opportunities for alternative, decentralized power plants, which, however, is not currently implemented. One reason is the state monopoly over the power grid, the inability to obtain a reasonable charge for energy, although from an economic point of view, a company must derive financial benefit from this energy. This is due to the centralization of power, due to large losses on the way to the consumer. Under these conditions, any alternative power station will be unprofitable or she will have to compete with highly subsidized public stations. Therefore, an alternative decentralized power station is profitable only in remote areas where there is no communication with the public network, where it can serve as a reserve option, because of the inability to use the national grid power supply. Insecurity and lack of security of electricity, as well as the lack of affordable distributed gas in the mountains leading to rapid deforestation for firewood and the use of manure as a valuable fuel.
Objectives and Strategy Sector
Mountain people need reliable and affordable supply of electricity. There is little hope that the country's energy resources can be quickly used. More hope for inter-state agreements on water management, which should include the issue of energy. It is likely that Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan will provide oil and gas as compensation for services in the water sector. This should be used not only for the urban centers, as well as mountainous terrain. If the subsidies in the energy sector will be covered by financial contributions from the countries in the plains, it will serve to prevent the destruction of forest resources. Preferably do not rely on subsidies because the government of Kyrgyzstan in the near future will not be able to provide the required amount. It would be better if the mountain people have paid for specific services rather than subsidies.
Decentralization of power supply based on renewable resources (small hydro, wind station, geothermal power plants and solar energy collectors, biogas) can solve the problem, even if the mineral resources of neighboring countries are not available. But for that the state should make great efforts to provide legal legal and administrative conditions. Now the chances for the development of alternative decentralized energy sector are scarce, although such technology is constantly improving alternative energy sources and are used throughout the world.
Despite the many problems in this situation, the main goal for the energy sector in the mountains is to optimize the use of energetic rock, minimizing its detrimental effects on the environment.
Increased use of alternative renewable energy resources deserve attention. This will lead to decentralization of energy production, and will benefit communities in mountain areas. Communities mountain as much as possible should participate in the development and implementation of construction of power stations. Local control of power stations will create confidence in the independence and energy suppliers. For this to be a legal basis and should be implemented by small-scale energy development program.
Studies be undertaken on the possible use of alternative energy resources. Kyrgyzstan annually receives 4.64 billion megawatt hours of solar radiation, or 4.23 kilowatt hours per square meter. miles. The average duration of sunshine varies between 21 000 and 29 000 hours per year. Wind resources of up to 100 m above ground level is estimated at 2 billion megawatt hours per year, although unevenly distributed across the country.
The concept should be developed together with local residents, given the cheapness energovyrabatyvayuschih systems and a minor cost of their installation. It must be decided which financial services can be used. From a psychological point of view, is unacceptable that local people do not invest in the construction of the stations that did not lead to the correct recall of the populations concerned to such projects. Ideally, the people themselves should be responsible for all costs, because only in this case the unfavorable energy projects will be excluded. Possible credit, however, must be long-term and on favorable terms, so that the recipient could pay interest and principal part of the credit of its profit
Need to reform public energovyrabatyvayuschey systems for energy conservation. To date, the purchasing power of population is very low, so a part of these reforms should be to increase state control over energy company (for example, an association of people who could participate in the management and control of energy production).
It is also necessary investments to modernize and increase the efficiency of large power stations and distribution systems. This will reduce the current wastage of limited energy resources. However, it requires large investments and may be subject to regional cooperation.
All forests in the country entirely located in the mountains and play an important role in protecting soil resources, water conservation and biodiversity. Particularly important is the fact that natural forests grow on steep slopes, they protect the soil from water erosion and intercept precipitation, acting as a sponge slowly giving water to the river, thus protecting the area lying below the flood.
Due to the limited forest area and the significance of its protective function, the forests of Kyrgyzstan are not used for large industrial logging, even though they are part of the forest provide the needs of the country.
All forests have the potential, which can be used for recreational purposes (clean air, attractive landscapes, etc.). In addition, forests comprise 22% of the total area set aside for hunting.
Forest products, non-timber products such as medicinal plants, fruits, nuts, mushrooms and honey are potential sources of income for those who live in forested areas. Forest area in Kyrgyzstan covers 3,163.2 hectares and from 849.5 thousand hectares of forest areas are solid. From this area of 2,833,6 ha is under the direction and control of the State Agency for Forestry. This represents 4.2% of the territory of Kyrgyzstan. In addition, 236.2 thousand hectares are protected areas of the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources. 23 thousand hectares are owned by the former collective and state farms and 3.6 ha, the presidential administration. In comparison with 1930 year, the area covered by forest decreased by 30%. Spruce forests dominate in the Tien Shan mountains (12.7% of the total forest area). They include rare species of fir tree Semenova, which was included in the Red Book. The main areas of spruce forests are located in the north of the republic, on the slopes of the mountains that border the lake Issyk-Kul, Naryn River at the mouth, as well as in Talas. In the southern part of Kyrgyzstan, Osh and Jalal-Abad, there are only 13.2 hectares of spruce forests. Most of the southern forests of the country is growing at Transalai Ridge in estuaries and the Kara-Tar Yining. Spruce forests are mainly used for timber production.
Shrubs, juniper forests cover an area amounting to 264.3 thousand hectares or 31.1% of the total forest area, located mainly in the south of Kyrgyzstan. Juniper forest consists mainly of 5 species, of which 3 are the following Fir forest, typical of the northern most widespread: Kyrgyzstan Juniperus seravschanica, J. semiglobosa and J. turkestanica. Juniper forests are restored very slowly and very difficult to create artificial plantations. Therefore, it is a tree that is widely used traditionally, vulnerable with excessive use. Since 1930, the fir and juniper forests declined by 35%.
One of the last wild forest fruit and nut with a special genetic value is in the south of Kyrgyzstan. It covers 98.3 hectares. Only natural walnut forests is 33.3 thousand hectares and is the largest relic of its kind in the world. But that is only 50% of fruit and nut forests that existed 50 years ago. Pistachio and almond forests decreased by only 30.000 hectares during the same period.
Kyrgyzstan can be regarded as a center of origin of many cultivated fruits. Wild relatives of these plants (walnut, apple, apricot, pistachio) serve as a genetic reservoir for the cultivated fruit trees. Wild relatives of domestic trees that have economic importance for Kyrgyzstan include: walnut (Julian's regia), Siever apple (Malus sievesii), Kirghiz apple (M. kirghisorum), several sub myrobalan (Prunus sogdiana), disposable pear (Pyrus communis), pear Korzhinsky (P. korshinskyi), Regel pear (P. regelii), Tien-Shan cherry (Cerasus tianschanica), Megaleb cherry (P. mahaleb), barberry (Berberis oblonga), almonds, disposable (Pistacea vera), hawthorn Yungara (Crataegus songorica ) and Turkestan hawthorn (C. turkestanica).
Despite the benefits of forests in protecting soil and water resources of the general population's attitude to forests irresponsible. The increasing human pressures, uncontrolled grazing, exploitation of forest land for cultivation purposes, the use of timber and firewood, accelerates the degradation of forests.
Sverhispolzovanie timber has led to the threat of degradation and disappearance of walnut forests as timber, and especially the root nodules of walnut trees are very valuable for carving. In addition, collecting firewood and overgrazing the surrounding population impede the natural recovery, full stop in the last 10 years, except for certain protected areas (Sary-Chelek). Even the ban on felling of forests is not straightened threatening deforestation. At a minimum population of interest in the conservation of forest resources, there is no landings for industrial purposes, lack of cultivation of seedlings, poor collection and processing, marketing is not developed berries and nuts. All this has made forestry unprofitable and caused the degradation of forest resources.
Overgrazing of livestock inhibits the natural regeneration of forests. The rights to grazing in forest areas not regulated. Lack of activities lesokulturnyhtehnicheskih inhibit natural regeneration. The prohibition of deforestation limits the ability of health updates, and cutting down old and diseased trees. As a result, the age structure of forests and non-optimal for the conservation of biological diversity and economic activity. The combination of uncontrolled logging, dry climate and anthropogenic pressure reduces the possibility of natural regeneration of forest area. In addition, the ecological relationship of forests and forest pests are not balanced, and is complicated by the misuse of pesticides. This affected the quality and quantity of timber produced. Uncontrolled collection of wood for fuel has increased with the increasing poverty of mountain populations and decreasing reliability of electricity supply, which leads to loss of forests to reduce soil and water. High market prices for high quality timber from walnut, spruce and juniper trees lead to the illegal felling. Inefficient administration and inadequate legislation contribute to forest destruction.
Many of these problems associated with insufficient involvement of local communities in forest management. In Soviet times, the forest resources are managed from the center of the village and the surrounding forest is also managed centrally. And now the motivation of local residents to be involved in forest management is small. People do not have specific long-term property rights of forest and almost no economic incentives. State forestry agency operates efficiently under the new market conditions. Management is aimed down at the lack of responsibility of the lower classes. All this leads to inefficient management of forest resources.
Lacking in both public and private small-scale local enterprises for processing wood and wood products. At present, there is no existing legislation that supports private or public institutions, processing forest products.
Strategy and target sectors
The stability of forest ecosystems is a primary goal of the state to preserve all of the benefits provided by forests. This means that it is necessary to maintain the integrity of their natural forest structure, composition and ecological characteristics, based on their characteristics, and relative inaccessibility, fragility, a center of biodiversity, etc.
Achieving this goal is not a purely technical problem. The solution to this complex problem involves the farms (the system) and socio-economic component, political and state structures. The goal can be achieved only when the benefits of forests and their sustainable use will outweigh the costs of people living near or around them. Benefits should be equally distributed between the shareholders, who control a given forest area. This is the basis for any feasible strategy for forest management.
People living near or having relatively easy access glued areas, should be actively involved in the management of these mountain resources. Should be developed awareness of the direct and indirect value of forests and the requirements for its protection. The rights and obligations shall be agreed between the government agency in the forest and the local community, provided that the community will be empowered not influence forest management.
Under the current administrative and legislative conditions, the final goal is still far from realization. But all the actions outlined below should be used. It should be noted that the full privatization of the forests is not relevant, although it is recommended to transfer some aspects of the production of forestry communities and private enterprises. A government agency does the state control functions, and the local community should be interested in the use and protection of forests.
A complete ban on logging is not adequate for the development of national forest and is not even adequate for the protection of forest resources.